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The Copula and Its Various Forms

The copula da is a fundamental particle which performs some of the functions usually performed by the verb to be and its forms, the link between the subject and its predicate.

The copula da has several forms as shown below:

No-past Past No-past
(with emphasis on future)
Affirm. Neg. Affirm. Neg. Affirm. Neg.
Factual da mu /
deri mu deri /
ne deri
darah mu darah /
ne darah
na mu na/
ne na
neri mu neri/
ne neri
narah mu narah/
ne narah
Imperative ba mu ba/
ne ba
beri mu beri/
ne beri
barah mu barah/
ne barah

Notice the alternative negation particle ne "not" and how it can be declined with the possession endings (nem, ned, nej, nenk, netek, nejuk), and some emphasis can be added in affirmatives by the particle ja (jam, jad, jaj, jank, jatok, jajuk) which is the alternative for the adverb da "yes"

Let's see some Latin sentences

§ alis grave nil.
"with wings nothing is heavy."
→ elto nul da gurai.

§ absens heres non est.
"the absent is not heir."
→ ha falteia mu lojunor.

§ actus simulatus nullius est momenti.
"the simulated deed has no value."
→ simulai ato da nuli atae.

§ vana est sine viribus ira.
"anger without strength is vain."
→ čikarale uračo da üresi.

well... this must be enough for now (:


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