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Cases and Declension: The Comitative

The Comitative is the case of the subject's companion, i.e., someone we would call a kind of "partner" of the subject. It's the case of accompaniment.

In fact, it differs from the member of a compound subject by an apparently little, but important aspect. In a compound subject, we notice every member as an active collaborator upon an action. For instance:

 → Peter and Kate went to the mall.  (Compound subject)

On the other hand, a subject's companion is a kind of supporting character, as someone who accompany the doer through the course of action.

 → Peter went with Kate to the mall.  (Subject's companion)

Used with the subject, the comitative does apply for people (and also for personified things) only. Although things used as instruments also comes with the "with" marker in English, these must go through the Instrumental case.

 → John Dee cuts the breat with a knife.  (Instrument)

Well, let's know how Jusuk deals with it:

Peter i Kate małani juketech.
 → Peter and Kate went to the mall.

Peter Kateto małani juketech.
 → Peter went with Kate to the mall.

Sometimes, the comitative goes into the object, both for things and people, too.

Vetsat lurto aggosuni miksejoh.
 → Mix the eggs with the flour into the bow.

Šenzanor gy ningen veitsat butato miksete.
 → A scientist has mixed an human embryo with pig [ones].

No matter how the word ends or which vowels are. The suffix (to) remains the same. Quite simple.

That's enough for now. Bye~


  1. A question has been left behind... how distinguish the comitative that goes along with the subject from the another comitative that goes along with the object?
    In this case, we should look carefully at the position of terms, and should put the subject one right before the subject and the object one right before the verb (what would mean between the object and the verb if the direct form is assumed).

    1. For example:

      Martinto Kristin batat dulsato miksejech
      → Kristin and Martin mix the butter with the sugar.


      Kristin Martinto da batat dulsato miksejech

      You can assume every comitative before 'da' is related to the subject, and those which goes after 'da' relate to the object.

    2. Or you can just simplify:

      * by turning the object comitative into a object itself, and using connective:
      → Kristin Martinto batat i dulsat miksejech

      * by turning the subject comitative into a subject itself, and using connective:
      → Kristin i Martin batat dulsato miksejech

      * by doing the both above:
      → Kristin i Martin batat i dulsat miksejech

    3. Another idea is compose the subject in a different way.
      It would be, for example, by joining the various subject main terms in a hyphen-compound one. I was thinking of Mercedes-Benz, Daimler-Chrysler, and so on.

      → Kristin-Martin batat dulsato miksejech.


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