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Ige: Indikativ Mode - Past Tense


That's our second lesson on verbs. The post title stands for verbs: indicative mode - past tense. 

In the last post we learned about the no-past tense -- in Szion, lopéstu --, on Indicative mode, active voice.
Let's learn the past tenses for the indicative mode, working on the same three verbs we used, okay?

Indicative Mode: Past Tense
  • Verb: tirac = to make a goal (footbal)
mi tirad
ti tiradesz
o tirade
biz tiradiz
miz tiradimiz
tiz tiraditiz
oû tirad
  • Verb: sumac = to sum up; to make account (accounting)
mi sud
ti sudesz
o sude
biz sudiz
miz sudimiz
tiz suditiz
oû sud
  • Verb: ieremec = to establish, to found (a home, a business), to raise (a new clan, like in Naruto)
mi iered
ti ieredesz
o ierede
biz ierediz
miz ieredimiz
tiz iereditiz
oû iered

As you've noticed, all desinences are the same for any verbs -- they can end up with -ac-mec or -mac. However, the -ac verbs drops out just the -c ending and then add their forms; the other verbs (-mec and -mac.) remove these endings before adding desinences.

There is another thing about the past tense. Unlike the no-past tense, the -mec/-mac verbs whose stems ends with a consonant need a link vowel before adding the past desinences. What vowel is added? It's based upon the last vowel of the verb stem. If the last vowel is one of [a, i, u, î, û] or a compound on these like [aû, uî] etc., an a is added. Otherwise, if the vowel is one of [e, o, é, ó], an e is added at the verb stem.

► kózmec "to apply makeup/ cosmetics in the face" → o kózye "she glosses" → o kózede "she glossed"
► karmac "to have karma" → o karye "she has karma" → o karade "she had karma"

And remember these link vowels do not apply for -ac verbs (like divac), since these verb stems naturally ends with a!


1. Conjugate all these verbs in the past Indicative: divac "to dive", kiluac "to kill, to murder", szinac "to die", karmac "to have karma", kózmec "to makeup", laemec "to live", eszac "to eat", szac "to chat", kyuac "to heal", sagamac "to make love", sagasitac "to be wise, to be sagacious", animasac "to animate", télébisac "to broadcast on a TV channel", téléfonac "to call by phone", tegamac "to post a letter", oaikac "to wander, to go away without any destiny", sóraikac "to climb up the sky" (e.g., as NASA does), hévikac "to go to the Heaven".


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