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Active, Passive and Middle Voice

Hello! Today we will learn about the discourse voices. There are three in Viriatic:

Active Voice

Mikyu keket
I eat cake.

The active voice is given by default (sic, obviously!!!) when the target of action remains at object or person with an Accusative mark (mostly -t or -et).  

Passive Voice

Kadastudi ginkojerenak
I was signed up by the bank account manager.

The passive voice is made when we puts verbs on passive conjugation while the agent is marked with a -nak suffix. For the factual, desiderative and imperative moods, simply add an -i suffix at the end. The kadastudi above is an example: the active form is kadastud “I signed up [anyone]”. To say “I signed up” in the sense you signed up yourself (like in a website or web forum), you must use it with mett accusative pronoun (as shown under Middle Voice). 

Middle Voice

Shebyu mett
I shave me. (me in the sense of myself)

Mark ont shebye / Market shebye
Mark shaves him[self]

Please note the first phrase is the most exact. For more exactiness, name is usually repeated like following:

Mark Market shebye
Mark shaves him[self]

Mut egayem
We laugh each other.

Mut dakayem
We give hugs each other.

Middle voice seems to be reciproque at plural forms while reflexive at single ones. In both cases, subject and object are the same, in the same verbal person and number.


ginko: bank
ginkojere: bank account manager (who's able to authorize, or no, a loan for you)
keke: cake
kadastuc: to sign up (anyone or anything), to insert (data into a database)
sheboc: to shave
egac: to laugh
dakac: to give hug


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